Homework Handouts And Additional Resourcesmac's History

History Study Guides. These study guide materials are intended to accompany History Classroom programs. Feel free to print the pages for classroom use. History Discovery Zone. Homework and In-Class Worksheets 7th. Homework and In-Class Worksheets 8th. Lesson Notes 7th. Historian's Toolkit. Lesson Notes 2019-2020. Printable kids worksheets. We have hundreds of free worksheets parents, teachers, homeschoolers or other caregivers to use with kids. We have worksheets for holidays, seasons, animals and lots of worksheets for learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes and much more! View science-based, patient-friendly, and consumer-friendly fact sheets to hand out at health fairs and community events. Each publication is available in English and Spanish, and provides links to additional information on National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases' (NIDDK) web pages.

Check out all of our free printable worksheets! These worksheets are perfect for any teacher, parent, homeschooler or other caregiver who is looking for fun and educational activities to do with their kids. We have lots of holiday worksheets, seasonal worksheets, animal worksheets and more. Make sure to check out all of our learning worksheets dealing with subjects like reading, writing, math as well as the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes and more.

Seasonal Worksheets for Kids

Check out our worksheets that are themed for each of the seasons below. These seasonal collections include worksheets for practicing skills like matching, counting, spelling and more!

Winter Worksheets

Count the snowmen, unscramble the winter words, solve the secret winter message and more...

Spring Worksheets

Fill in the missing letters of spring words, count the rainbows, match the spring pictures and more...

Summer Worksheets

Check out this fun collection of printable summer worksheets for kids!

Fall Worksheets

Match the fall pictures, count the pumpkins, decode the fall cryptogram and more...

Kids Holiday Worksheets

This is our section of holiday worksheets. We are working on creating a set of worksheets for each holiday, so take a look at the ones we already have below. Whether you are a teacher or parent, we have different fun and educational worksheets for each holiday that you can print and use with your kids.

New Year Worksheets

Check out our section of printable new year worksheets for kids including counting, matching, handwriting and more!

Valentine's Day Worksheets

Help kids learn while having fun during this special holiday with this variety of Valentine's Day worksheets.

St. Patrick's Day Worksheets

Children will enjoy this collection of printable worksheets with a fun St. Patrick's Day theme.

Earth Day Worksheets

We've got a variety of Earth Day worksheets that include printables focussed on recycling, earth, living things and more.

Easter Worksheets

Check out our section of fun printable Easter worksheets for kids. Matching, math, counting, spelling and much more!

Memorial Day Worksheets

Check out our fun selection of Memorial Day themed worksheets for kids including counting, handwriting, matching and more...

4th of July Worksheets

Get kids in the patriotic spirit while learning with this collection of printable 4th of July worksheets.

Halloween Worksheets

Kids love Halloween and we have some fun worksheets to go along with our Halloween crafts for kids.

Thanksgiving Worksheets

Check out our selection of Thanksgiving themed worksheets. Kids will have fun learning while enjoying this special holiday.

Christmas Worksheets

Christmas trees, ornaments and of course Santa! View and print our variety of Christmas worksheets.

Animal Worksheets

We have recently started creating animal worksheets (to go with some of new animal crafts we have been doing). Below are the first sets of free animal worksheets we have created. They include lots of fun and educational activities for kids to do. Perfect for parents or teachers and totally free!

Farm Animals Worksheets

Farm animals are a kids favorite and this collection of farm animals worksheets are educational and fun!

Birds Worksheets

Check out our set of birds themed worksheets which include a variety of learning exercises for kids of different ages.

Ocean Worksheets

This set of printable worksheets is geared towards ocean animals. Matching, counting, alphabetizing and more...

Bug Worksheets

Kids will have fun learning about bugs and developing other skills with this set of printable bug worksheets!

African Animals Worksheets

Lions, elephants, giraffes, zebras and lots of other popular African animals take the spotlight in this fun and education set of worksheets.

Animal Mix Up Worksheets

The animals in these worksheets got all mixed up! Kids can practice their scissor skills while figuring out how the pieces of each animal go together.

Worksheets by Subject

Below is a listing of some of our high level subjects or topics. We have thousands of free worksheets underneath these main subjects, so please click into them to see all the sub categories of each we have.

Reading Worksheets

We have over 500 reading worksheets for a variety of age ranges that cover topics like reading comprehension, phonics, the alphabet and much more.

Writing Worksheets

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Math Worksheets

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Basic Concepts Worksheets

We have 150+ free worksheets that we have grouped into a collection we call basic concepts. These worksheets cover topics like same and different, before and after, full and empty, left and right and much more.

Alphabet Worksheets

Over 150 printable alphabet worksheets for kids. Traceable letters, letter recognition, printing practice and more...

Number Worksheets

Help kids learn their basic numbers with this collection. Traceable numbers, counting practice and more...

Shapes Worksheets

We have a variety of shapes worksheets including traceable shapes, shape recognition and more...

Color Worksheets

Teach kids their colors with this set of color worksheets. Color matching, color recognition and more...

Pattern Worksheets

Complete the patterns in these elementary math skills worksheets. We have easy, medium and hard skill levels for preschoolers.

Sizes Worksheets

Help kids learn the basic size concepts like; big and small, tall and short, long and short, and more...

Same / Different Worksheets

Help kids learn to recognize things that are the same and things that are the same with this set of worksheets.

Tracing Lines Worksheets

This set of tracing lines worksheets is perfect for helping toddlers and preschoolers develop their early writing skills.

Motor Skills Worksheets

Help kids develop their fine motor skills with this set of printable worksheets designed to help them with their scissor skills.

Time Worksheets

Teach kids to tell time with this collection of printable time worksheets. Read the clocks and write down the correct time as well as putting the hands on clocks to show the right time...

More Worksheet Topics

Below are some more of our printable educational worksheets for kids for you to choose from. Please make sure to check back often as we are always adding new worksheets to our websites.

Back to School Worksheets

Get kids excited about going back to school with these fun and education themed worksheets.

Music Worksheets

Teach kids about music and the many musical instruments! We have a nice variety of printable music themed worksheets that kids will really enjoy.

Weather Worksheets

Check out this set of printable weather worksheets that kids will enjoy while learning about the weather.

Plant Worksheets

This set of free worksheets will help kids learn about the different parts of plants.

Space Worksheets

This collection of worksheets is focussed on space and will help kids learn about the solar system and more.

Geography Worksheets

Help kids learn about maps, coordinates, directions and things like the oceans, continents and much more.

Dinosaurs Worksheets

Kids will really love this set of fun and educational dinosaur worksheets. We have a variety to choose from.

Family Worksheets

Help children learn about their family with our collection of family themed worksheets for kids.

All About Me Worksheets

These 'All About Me' worksheet focus on important things like a child's name, address, phone number and more.

Body Worksheets

Teach kids about some of the basic parts of the body. We have a bunch of worksheets to chose from.

Food Group Worksheets

Help kids learn about the different food groups and healthy eating.

Fruit Worksheets

Check out our collection of free printable fruit themed worksheets for kids.

Vegetable Worksheets

Check out our collection of free printable vegetable themed worksheets for kids.

Dairy Worksheets

This set of dairy food worksheets will help kids recognize dairy foods and practice important skills.

Community Helpers Worksheets

Help kids appreciate the special people in your community with our collection of community helpers worksheets.

Community Worksheets

Learn about the different types of communities including Urban, Suburban and Rural communities.

Months Worksheets

Learn the months of the year including the ability to recognize, write, spell and put the months of the year in order.

Days of the Week Worksheets

Learn the days of the week including the ability to recognize, write, spell and each of the days.
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What this handout is about

This handout was written with several goals in mind: to explain what historians do and how they approach the writing process, to encourage you to think about your history instructor’s expectations, and to offer some strategies to help you write effectively in history courses.

Introduction: What is history?

Easy, right? History is everything that happened in the past: dates, facts, timelines, and the names of kings, queens, generals, and villains. For many students, the word “history” conjures up images of thick textbooks, long lectures, and even longer nights spent memorizing morsels of historical knowledge.

For your instructors in the history department, however, history is a fascinating puzzle with both personal and cultural significance. The past informs our lives, ideas, and expectations. Before shrugging off this abstract notion, ask yourself another “easy” question: Why are you here at UNC-CH?

Maybe you’re at UNC because it was the best school that accepted you, or because UNC has great sports teams. In the big picture, however, you are here because of history, i.e., because of past events and developments. You are here (on the planet) because two people’s lives collided—in the past. You may be here (in North Carolina) because you or some ancestor crossed an ocean several weeks, years, decades or centuries ago. You are here (in Chapel Hill) because, two hundred years ago, some people pooled their ideas, energy, and money to dig a well, collect some books, and hire some professors. You are here (at an institution of higher education) because long ago, some German scholars laid the groundwork for what we call the “modern university.”

In other words, your presence on this campus is the result of many, many historical developments. Although we are all unique, we share parts of our identities with past peoples and cultures. The problems we face today may have puzzled—or even been created by—past people and cultures. This same past has eliminated many hurdles for us (think of the polio vaccine) and may even offer possible solutions for contemporary concerns (consider the recent revival of herbal medicines).

Finally, history is ever-changing. Question: what did Christopher Columbus do? Well, if you’re like many people, you’re thinking, “He discovered the New World.” Well, sort of. It took a while before the Spaniards realized he’d landed on an island off the coast of this New World. It took even longer for historians to figure out that the Vikings crossed the Atlantic long before Columbus. And now we know that this world wasn’t really “new”—there were civilizations here that far predated organized cultures in Europe.

So, historians study the past to figure out what happened and how specific events and cultural developments affected individuals and societies. Historians also revise earlier explanations of the past, adding new information. The more we know about the past, the better we can understand how societies have evolved to their present state, why people face certain problems, and how successfully others have addressed those problems.

As you can see, the questions of history include the immediate and personal (how did I get here?), the broad and cultural (why do universities function as they do?) and the purely factual (what exactly did Columbus find?). The answers historians offer are all more or less educated guesses about the past, based on interpretations of whatever information trickles down through the ages.

History instructors’ expectations of you

You can assume two things about your Carolina history instructors. First, they are themselves scholars of history. Second, they expect you to engage in the practice of history. In other words, they frequently want you to use information to make an educated guess about some bygone event, era, or phenomenon.

You probably know how to guess about the past. High school history exams and various nameless standardized tests often encourage students to guess. For example:

    1. The hula hoop was invented in
    a) 1650
    b) 1865
    c) 1968
    d) none of the above

In academia, however, guessing is not enough. As they evaluate assignments, history instructors look for evidence that students:

  • know about the past, and can
  • think about the past.

Historians know about the past because they look at what relics have trickled down through the ages. These relics of past civilizations are called primary sources. For some periods and cultures (20th century America, for example), there are tons of primary sources—political documents, newspapers, teenagers’ diaries, high school year books, tax returns, tape-recorded phone conversations, etc. For other periods and cultures, however, historians have very few clues to work with; that’s one reason we know so little about the Aztecs.

Gathering these clues, however, is only part of historians’ work. They also consult other historians’ ideas. These ideas are presented in secondary sources, which include textbooks, monographs, and scholarly articles. Once they’ve studied both primary and secondary sources, historians think. Ideally, after thinking for a while, they come up with a story to link together all these bits of information—an interpretation (read: educated guess) which answers a question about some past event or phenomenon.

Sounds pretty straightforward, right? Except when two historians using different sources come up with contradictory answers to the same question. Even worse, what if two historians ask the same question and use the same sources but come up with different answers? This happens pretty regularly and can lead to heated debates, complete with name-calling. Even today, for example, historians still can’t agree on the extent of apocalyptic panic surrounding the year 1000.

To avoid unnecessary disagreements and survive legitimate debates, good historians explain why their question is important, exactly what sources they found, and how they analyzed those sources to reach a particular interpretation. In other words, they prove that both their approach and answers are valid and significant. This is why historical texts have so many footnotes. It’s also why history instructors put so much emphasis on how you write your paper. In order to evaluate the quality of your answer to a historical question, they need to know not only the “facts,” but also:

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  • why your question is significant
  • where you got your facts
  • how you engaged and organized those facts to make your point

To sum up: most UNC history instructors will expect you to both know information and interpret it to answer a question about the past. Your hard-won ability to name all the governors of Idaho in chronological order will mean little unless you can show why and how that chronology is significant.

Typical writing assignments

(For general tips, see our handout on understanding assignments.)

A typical Carolina history course includes several kinds of writing assignments:

  • Research papers—As the name suggests, these assignments require you to engage in full-fledged historical research. You will read sources (primary and/or secondary), think about them, and interpret them to answer some question about the past. Note: Contrary to popular fears, research papers are not the most common kind of paper assigned in college-level history courses.
  • Response papers—Much more common in survey courses, these assignments ask you to reflect on a given reading, film, or theme of the course and discuss/evaluate some aspect of it. Don’t be disillusioned, however; these are rarely intended to be free-flowing, last minute scrawls on the back of a napkin. Be prepared to address a question and support why you think that way about it.
  • Exam essays—Essay exam questions are close cousins of response papers. Assuming you’ve kept up with the course, you should have all the “facts” to answer the question, and need only (!?!) to organize them into a thoughtful interpretation of the past. For tips on this, see our handout on essay exams.
  • Book reviews—These will vary depending on the requirements of the course. All book reviews in history should explain the basic argument of the book and assess the argument’s strengths and weaknesses. Your assessment can include an evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, methodology, organization, style, etc. Was the argument convincing? If so, then explain why, and if not, explain why. Some instructors will also expect you to place the book within its historiographical context, examining the relationship between this work and others in the field. For more information, see our handout on book reviews.
  • Historiographical essays—These assignments are common in upper-level and graduate history classes. Historiographical essays focus on how scholars have interpreted certain events, not on the events themselves. Basically, these assignments are “histories of history” and require that students be able to explain the different schools of thought on a subject.

Here’s an example of a thesis statement for a historiographical essay:

    The historiography of the American Revolution can be primarily seen as a shift between various Whig and Progressive interpretations. While Whig historians are concerned with political ideology and the actions of powerful people, Progressive interpretations generally examine the social causes of the Revolution.

To begin a historiographical essay, you will first read multiple works on the same topic, such as the American Revolution. As you would for a book review, you will then analyze the authors’ arguments, being sure to avoid simple summaries. You can organize your essay chronologically (in the order that the books on the topic were published) or methodologically (grouping historians with similar interpretations together).

Some questions to consider as you write a historiographical essay are: How has the historiography on this subject evolved over time? What are the different schools of thought on the topic, and how do they impact the interpretations of this subject? Why have different scholars come to different conclusions about this topic? You may find some of the information in our handout on literature reviews helpful.

The specifics of your particular assignment will obviously vary. However, if you’re not sure how to attack a writing assignment in your history course (and why else would you be reading this?), try our 8½ Step Plan.

8½ step plan

1. Recall the link between history and writing
In case you missed this, history is basically an educated guess about the past.

When you write, you will most likely have to show that you know something about the past and can craft that knowledge into a thoughtful interpretation answering a specific question.

2. Read with an eye towards writing

You will have to read before you write. If the reading has been assigned, guess why your instructor chose it. Whatever you read, ask yourself:

  • How does this text relate to the themes of the lecture/discussion section/course?
  • What does this text say? What does it not say?
  • How do I react to this text? What are my questions? How could I explain it to someone else (summarize it, diagram the main points, critique the logic)?
Homework Handouts And Additional Resourcesmac

Homework Handouts And Additional Resourcesmac's History Worksheets

For more on this, see also our handout on reading to write.

3. Dissect the question

Since you now (having completed step 1) anticipate having to make—and support—an educated guess, pick the question apart. Identify:

A. Opportunities to show what you know. These are requests for information and are usually pretty easy to find. Look for verbs like these:

  • Summarize
  • Outline
  • Review

B. Opportunities to show what you think. These are requests for interpretation. If you’re lucky, they will be just as obvious. Look for key words like these:

  • Why
  • How
  • Analyze
  • Critique

Requests for interpretation may not always be worded as questions.

Each of following statements asks for an educated guess:

  • Compare the effects of the French Revolution and white bread on French society.
  • Analyze what freedom meant to Cleopatra.
  • Discuss the extent to which television changed childhood in America.

Homework Handouts And Additional Resourcesmac's History Grade

Warning: Even something as straightforward as “Did peanut butter kill Elvis?” is usually a plea for both knowledge and interpretation. A simple “yes” or “no” is probably not enough; the best answers will include some information about Elvis and peanut butter, offer supporting evidence for both possible positions, and then interpret this information to justify the response.

3½. Dissect any other guidelines just as carefully

Your assignment prompt and/or any writing guidelines your instructor has provided contain valuable hints about what you must or could include in your essay.

Homework handouts and additional resourcesmac

Consider the following questions:

  • In all papers for this course, be sure to make at least one reference to lecture notes.
  • Evaluate two of the four social classes in early modern Timbuktu.

History instructors often begin an assignment with a general “blurb” about the subject, which many students skip in order to get to the “real” question. These introductory statements, however, can offer clues about the expected content and organization of your essay. Example:

    The modern world has witnessed a series of changes in the realm of breadmaking. The baker’s code of earlier societies seemed no longer relevant to a culture obsessed with fiber content and caloric values. The meaning of these developments has been hotly contested by social historians such as Al White and A. Loaf. Drawing on lecture notes, class readings, and your interpretation of the film, The Yeast We Can Do, explain which European culture played the greatest role in the post-war breadmaking revolution.
Homework handouts and additional resourcesmac

Although it’s possible this instructor is merely revealing his/her own nutritional obsessions, a savvy student could glean important information from the first two sentences of this assignment. A strong answer would not only pick a culture and prove its importance to the development of breadmaking, but also:

  • summarize the relationship between this culture and the series of changes in breadmaking
  • briefly explain the irrelevance of the baker’s code
  • relate the answer to both the arguments of White and Loaf and the modern world’s obsessions

For more on this, see our handout on understanding assignments.

4. Jot down what you know and what you think
This is important because it helps you develop an argument about the question.

Make two lists, one of facts and one of thoughts.

FACTS: What do you know about breadmaking, based on your sources? You should be able to trace each item in this list to a specific source (lecture, the textbook, a primary source reading, etc).

THOUGHTS: What’s the relationship between these facts? What’s your reaction to them? What conclusions might a reasonable person draw? If this is more difficult (which it should be), try:

Handouts
  • Freewriting. Just write about your subject for 5-10 minutes, making no attempt to use complete sentences, prove your ideas, or otherwise sound intelligent.
  • Jotting down your facts in no particular order on a blank piece of paper, then using highlighters or colored pencils to arrange them in sets, connect related themes, link related ideas, or show a chain of developments.
  • Scissors. Write down whatever facts and ideas you can think of. Cut up the list and then play with the scraps. Group related ideas or opposing arguments or main points and supporting details.

5. Make an argument
This is where many people panic, but don’t worry, you only need an argument, not necessarily an earth-shattering argument. In our example, there is no need to prove that Western civilization would have died out without bread. If you’ve been given a question, ask yourself, “How can I link elements of my two lists to address the question?” If you get stuck, try:

  • Looking back at steps 3 and 3½
  • More freewriting
  • Talking with someone
  • Letting all the information “gel” in your mind. Give your subconscious mind a chance to work. Get a snack, take a walk, etc.

If no question has been assigned, give yourself plenty of time to work on step 4. Alternately, convince yourself to spend thirty minutes on a 6-sided strategy Donald Daiker calls “cubing.” (If thirty minutes seems like a long time, remember most instructors really, really, really want to see some kind of argument.) Spend no more than five minutes writing on each of the following (just thinking doesn’t count; you have to get it down on paper):

  • Describe your subject. It’s breadmaking. Everyone eats bread. Bread can be different textures and colors and sizes…
  • Compare it. Breadmaking is like making steel because you combine raw ingredients…It’s totally different than…
  • Associate it. My grandfather made bread twice a week. Breadmaking makes me think of butter, cheese, milk, cows, the Alps. Loaf talks about Germans, and some of them live in the Alps.
  • Analyze it. White thinks that French bread is the best; Loaf doesn’t. There are different kinds of bread, different steps in the breadmaking process, different ways to make bread…
  • Apply it. You could teach a course on breadmaking. You could explain Franco-German hostilities based on their bread preferences…
  • Argue for or against it. Breadmaking is important because every culture has some kind of bread. People focus so much on food fads like smoothies, the “other white meat,” and Jell-O, but bread has kept more people alive over time…

Now, do any of these ideas seem significant? Do they tie in to some theme of your reading or course? Do you have enough information in your earlier “facts” and “thoughts” lists to PROVE any of these statements? If you’re still stumped, gather up all your lists and go talk with your instructor. The lists will prove to him/her you’ve actually tried to come up with an argument on your own and give the two of you something concrete to talk about. For more on this, see our handout on making an argument, handout on constructing thesis statements, and handout on asking for feedback on your writing.

6. Organize

Let’s say you’ve batted around some ideas and come up with the following argument:

    Although White’s argument about the role of food fads suggests that French culture drove the modern breadmaking revolution, careful consideration of Loaf’s thesis proves that German emigres irreversibly changed traditional attitudes towards bread.

The next step is to figure out a logical way to explain and prove your argument. Remember that the best thesis statements both take a position and give readers a map to guide them through the paper. Look at the parts of your thesis and devote a section of your essay to each part. Here’s one (but not the only) way to organize an essay based on the above argument:

  • P1: Introduction: Why is breadmaking a relevant subject? Who are White and Loaf? Give thesis statement.
  • P2: What is/was the breadmaking revolution? What traditional attitudes did it change?
  • P3: How does White’s argument about food fads lead one to believe the French have dominated this revolution?
  • P4: Why is White wrong?
  • P5: What is Loaf’s thesis and how do you see it asserting the role of German emigres?
  • P6: Why does Loaf’s thesis make sense?
  • P7: Conclusion: Sum up why Loaf’s argument is stronger, explain how society has been changed the breadmaking revolution as he understands it, and tie these ideas back to your original argument.

7. Fill in the content

Fill in each section—also called a paragraph—using your lists from step 5. In addition to filling in what you know and what you think, remember to explain each section’s role in proving your argument and how each paragraph relates to those before and after it. For more help with this, see our handout on introductions, handout on conclusions, handout on transitions, and handout on paragraph development.

8. Revise

Ideally, this would really be steps 8, 9, and 10 (maybe even 11 and 12 for a big or important paper), but you’d never have gotten this far if you suspected there were that many steps. To maintain the illusion, let’s just call them 8a, 8b, and 8c.

8a. Check the organization
This is really double-checking STEP 6. Do the parts of your paper make sense—and prove your point—in this order?

8b. Check content
First, read your draft and ask yourself how each section relates to your thesis or overall argument. Have you explained this relationship? If not, would it be easier to rework the body of your paper to fit your argument or to revise your thesis to fit the existing content?

Next, reread your draft, and identify each sentence (based on its actual content): Is it “knowing” or “thinking” or both? Write one or both of those words in the margin. After doing this for each sentence in the whole paper, go back and tally up how many times you scribbled “I know” and “I think.” This next part is important:

THE “KNOWS” and “THINKS” SHOULD BALANCE EACH OTHER OUT (more or less).

This should usually be true both within specific paragraphs and in the paper as a whole. It’s fine to have 4 “knows” and 6 “thinks,” but if things are way out of balance, reread the assignment very carefully to be sure you didn’t miss something. Even if they ask for your opinion, most history instructors expect you to back it up by interpreting historical evidence or examples.

8c. Proofread for style and grammar
This is also important. Even though you’re not writing for an English course, style and grammar are very important because they help you communicate ideas. For additional tips, see our handout on style and handout on proofreading.

Conclusion

While every assignment and course will have its unique quirks and requirements, you’re now armed with a set of basic guidelines to help you understand what your instructors expect and work through writing assignments in history. For more information, refer to the following resources or make an appointment to work with a tutor at the Writing Center.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Collingwood, R.G. “What is History?” The Written World. Reading and Writing in Social Contexts, edited by Susan Miller. Harper & Row, 1989, 336-341.

Daiker, Donald., et al. The Writer’s Options: Combining to Composing. 5th ed., Harper & Row, 1994.

Kennedy, Mary Lynch, and William J. Kennedy, editors. Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader and Rhetoric for Academic Writers. 7th ed. Pearson, 2012.

Marius, Richard, and Melvin E. Page. A Short Guide to Writing About History. 7th ed. Longman, 2010.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License.
You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill