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Important

If you are using a Python from any current python.orgPython installer for macOS (3.9.0+, 3.8.0+, or 3.7.2+),no further action is needed to use IDLE or tkinter.A built-in version of Tcl/Tk 8.6 will be used.

If you are using macOS 10.6 or later, the Apple-suppliedTcl/Tk 8.5 has serious bugs that can cause application crashes.If you wish to use IDLE or Tkinter, do not use the Apple-suppliedPythons. Instead, install and use a newer version of Pythonfrom python.org or a third-party distributor that supplies orlinks with a newer version of Tcl/Tk.

Free idl 7.0 download software at UpdateStar - 1,746,000 recognized programs - 5,228,000 known versions. It was originally introduced to Mac users in Mac OS 9. Platform Support for IDL 7.1, ENVI 4.7, and ENVI EX 1.0 Platform Vendor Hardware Operating System Supported Versions a Windows Microsoft Intel/AMD x86 32bit and x8664 64bit Windows XP SP2, Vista Macintosh Apple PowerPC 32bit. Minimal uninstallation of IDL 7.0 can leave behind IDL 7.0 Workbench post-installation updates and user configuration and customization files. In some cases it may be useful to be able to also remove these remnant Workbench updates and user settings such that a subsequent reinstallation of the IDL will allow default Workbench settings to be in effect. The following are steps to fully uninstall. The 'surface' and 'shadesurf' Commands Any two-dimensional data array can be displayed as a surface in IDL with a single surface or shadesurf command. The surface procedure draws a wire-mesh representation of a two-dimensional array in three dimensional space, and the shadesurf procedure creates a shaded-surface representation of a regular or nearly-regular gridded surface. Idl.colors: number of color IDL can use (useful for PseudoColor devices). Idl.grdepth: Depth, in bits, of the graphics device in use. Idl.retain: default parameter retain (Backing Store selection → graphics covered by other windows): 0= none, 1= by server, 2= by IDL. Idl.grvisual: type of visual device to use.

Python's integrated development environment,IDLE, and thetkinter GUI toolkitit uses, depend on the Tk GUI toolkit which isnot part of Python itself. For best results, it is important that theproper release of Tcl/Tk is installed on your machine.For recent Python installers for macOS downloadable from this website,here is a summary of current recommendations followed by more detailedinformation.

PythonReleaseInstallerVariantmacOSReleaseRecommendedTcl/TkAlternateTcl/TkNotRecommended
3.9.0,3.8.6,3.7.9all10.9 to10.15built-in8.6.8

There are currently three major variants of Tk in common use on macOS:

Aqua Cocoa Tk
A newer native implementation availableas a universal 64-bit and 32-bit binary. This variant is the standard nativemacOS variant in Tk 8.6 and as of Tk 8.5.13. Aqua Cocoa support wasbackported to Tk 8.5 (prior to 8.5.13) and released by Apple starting with macOS 10.6and by ActiveState starting with their 8.5.9.1 release.
Aqua Carbon Tk
Because it is implemented with older macOS Carbon interfaces, it isonly available as a 32-bit binary (usually for Intel and PowerPCprocessors). Aqua Carbon Tk 8.4 is included with macOS releases 10.4through 10.14 and is also available from ActiveState. Aqua Carbon variantsof Tk 8.5 had been available as an ActiveState Community Download priorto ActiveTcl 8.5.9. As of 8.5.13, the Tk project no longer supportsCarbon builds of Tk 8.5. 32-bit-only Python installers downloadablefrom this website for older Python releases were linked with Aqua CarbonTk 8.4.
X11 Tk
The traditional platform-independent UNIX Tk implementation whichrequires an X11 server, such as the Apple X11.app available as anoptional component in older macOS releases or from third-partydistributors. 64-bit and32-bit binaries can be built. While the Python installers downloadablefrom this website do not support X11 Tk, other distributors ofPython for macOS may do so.

built-in 8.6.8

As of Python 3.7.0, 3.6.8, and 2.7.16, all current Python installers for macOSdownloadable from python.org supplytheir own private copies of Tcl/Tk 8.6.8. They do not look for or use anythird-party or system copies of Tcl/Tk. This is an Aqua Cocoa Tk.

ActiveTcl 8.5.18.0

ActiveState provides binary distributions of Tcl/Tk which are upward compatiblewith and generally more up-to-date than those provided by Apple in macOSreleases. This version of Tcl/Tk includes fixes for some critical problemsthat you may encounter using tkinter or IDLE (see Apple 8.5.9 below).You can download an installer for this release fromthe ActiveState web site.Note that ActiveState Community Edition binaries are not open source andare covered by an ActiveState license. You should read the licensebefore downloading to verify that your usage complies with its terms of use.As of Python 3.7.0, 3.6.8, and 2.7.16, no current Python installers for macOSdownloadable from python.org make use of this or any other external versionof Tcl/Tk.

This is an Aqua Cocoa Tk.

Apple 8.5.9

This release is included in macOS 10.7 through at least macOS 10.14.As of this writing,there are at least two known issues with Tk 8.5.9 thatare present in Apple 8.5.9 Tk but fixed in more recent upstream 8.5 releases.The more serious problem is an immediate crash in Tkwhen entering a composition character, like Option-u on a US keyboard.(This problem is documented asTk bug 2907388.)There is also the more general problem of input manager support for compositecharacters(Tk bug 3205153)which has also been fixed in more recent Tcl/Tk 8.5 releases.You can avoid these problems by using a current python.org installeror by using a third-partydistribution of Python that does not use Apple 8.5.9 Tk.This is an Aqua Cocoa Tk.

Apple 8.5.7

This release is included in macOS 10.6. IDLE is known to hang or crashwhen used with the Apple 8.5.7 included in all versions of macOS 10.6.x.Because of this,we strongly recommend that you do not attempt to use Tkinter or IDLE withthe Apple-supplied Python 2.6.1 in 10.6. Instead, install a newer version ofPython that supports a newer version of Tk.This is an Aqua Cocoa Tk.

Note

While Tcl and Tk areseparate frameworks and libraries, they are closely related and arenormally installed or updated simultaneously. You should notattempt to mix-and-match Tcl and Tk versions. References toa specific version of Tk assume the corresponding version ofTcl is installed as well.

The Python for macOS installers downloaded from this website dynamicallylink at runtime to Tcl/Tk macOS frameworks. The Tcl/Tk major version isdetermined when the installer is created and cannot be overridden.All current python.org installers for Python 3.7.x, 3.6.x,and 2.7.x link to their own built-in Tcl/Tk 8.6 frameworks and do not useexternal Tcl/Tk frameworks so the rest of this section only applies tonon-current releases and, as such, no longer supported.

Download

The Python 64-bit/32-bit macOS installers for Python 3.6.x andand 2.7.x dynamically link to Tcl/Tk 8.5 frameworks.The dynamically linking occurs when tkinter (Python 3)or Tkinter (Python 2) is first imported (specifically, the internal_tkinter C extension module). By default, the macOS dynamic linkerlooks first in /Library/Frameworks for Tcl and Tk frameworks withthe proper major version. This is the standard location for third-partyor built from source frameworks, including the ActiveTcl releases.If frameworks of the proper major version are not found there,the dynamic linker looks for the same version in/System/Library/Frameworks, the location for Apple-suppliedframeworks shipped with macOS. (Note, you should normally not modifyor delete files in /System/Library.)

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As is common on macOS, the installed Pythons and the Tcl and Tkframeworks are built to run on multiple CPU architectures (universalbinaries) and across multiple macOS levels (minimum deploymenttarget). For Python to be able to dynamically link with a particularTcl and Tk version, the available architectures in the Tcl/Tk frameworksmust include the architecture that Python is running in and theirminimum deployment target should be no greater than that of Python.

  • 2020-10-05 - updated for 3.9.0 and 3.8.6, remove 2.7
  • 2020-08-17 - updated for 3.7.9
  • 2020-07-20 - updated for 3.8.5
  • 2020-06-27 - updated for 3.7.8
  • 2020-05-14 - updated for 3.8.3
  • 2020-03-10 - updated for 3.8.2 and 3.7.7
  • 2019-12-19 - updated for 3.8.1, 3.7.6, and 2.7.17
  • 2019-10-15 - updated for 3.8.0, 3.7.5, and macOS 10.15
  • 2019-07-08 - updated for 3.7.4; 3.6.x is now security-fix-only
  • 2019-03-25 - updated for 3.7.3
  • 2019-03-03 - updated for 2.7.16
  • 2018-12-24 - updated for 3.7.2 and 3.6.8
  • 2018-10-20 - updated for 3.7.1, 3.6.7, and macOS 10.14
  • 2018-06-27 - updated for 3.7.0 and 3.6.6
  • 2018-05-30 - updated for 3.7.0b5
  • 2018-05-02 - updated for 3.7.0b4 and 2.7.15; removed 32-bit-only refs
  • 2018-03-29 - updated for 3.7.0b3 and 3.6.5
  • 2018-02-28 - updated for 3.7.0b2
  • 2018-01-31 - updated for 3.7.0b1 and 3.6.4
  • 2017-10-03 - updated for 3.6.3 and macOS 10.13
  • 2017-09-16 - updated for 2.7.14; removed 3.5.x
  • 2017-07-17 - updated for 3.6.2
  • 2017-03-21 - updated for 3.6.1 and (belatedly) 3.5.3
  • 2016-12-23 - updated for 3.6.0
  • 2016-12-17 - updated for 2.7.13
  • 2016-09-23 - updated for macOS 10.12
  • 2016-07-31 - updated for 3.5.2 and 2.7.12; removed 3.4.x
  • 2015-12-20 - updated for 3.4.4
  • 2015-12-06 - updated for 3.5.1, 2.7.11, and macOS 10.11
  • 2015-09-13 - updated for 3.5.0
  • 2015-05-23 - updated for 2.7.10 and ActiveTcl 8.5.18.0
  • 2015-02-23 - updated for 3.4.3
  • 2014-12-10 - updated for 2.7.9 and ActiveTcl 8.5.17.0
  • 2014-10-16 - updated for macOS 10.10
  • 2014-10-06 - updated for 3.4.2 and ActiveTcl 8.5.16.0
  • 2014-09-22 - updated for 3.4.2rc1
  • 2014-07-01 - updated for 2.7.8
  • 2014-06-01 - updated for 2.7.7; removed 2.7.6 and 3.3.5
  • 2014-05-18 - updated for 3.4.1 and 2.7.7rc1
  • 2014-03-16 - updated for 3.4.0 and 3.3.5
  • 2014-02-10 - updated for 3.3.4 and 3.4.0rc1
  • 2014-01-05 - updated for 3.4.0b2
  • 2013-11-24 - clarify that the ActiveState website still refers to 8.5.15.0
  • 2013-11-24 - removed built-in for 3.4.0b1, removed 3.3.2 and 2.7.5
  • 2013-11-10 - ActiveTcl 8.5.15.1; removed built-in for 3.3.3rc2 and 2.7.6.
  • 2013-10-27 - updated for 3.3.3rc1 and 2.7.6rc1 and their built-in 8.5.15.
  • 2013-10-24 - updated for macOS 10.9 and ActiveTcl 8.5.15, removed 3.2.5.
  • 2013-10-20 - updated for 3.4.0a4 and its built-in 8.5.15.
  • 2013-09-29 - updated for 3.4.0a3
  • 2013-09-09 - updated for 3.4.0a2 and its built-in 8.5.14.
  • 2013-08-03 - updated for 3.4.0a1 and ActiveTcl 8.4.20
  • 2013-05-18 - updated for ActiveTcl 8.5.14
  • 2013-05-15 - updated for 3.3.2, 2.7.5, and 3.2.5
  • 2013-04-06 - updated for 3.3.1, 2.7.4, and 3.2.4
  • 2012-12-26 - updated for ActiveTcl 8.5.13 and Issue 15853 patch installer
  • 2012-09-29 - updated for 3.3.0 final and reverted to ActiveTcl 8.5.11.1
  • 2012-08-02 - updated for ActiveTcl 8.5.12
  • 2012-07-28 - updated for macOS 10.8
  • 2012-04-11 - updated for 3.2.3 final and 2.7.3 final
  • 2012-03-18 - updated for 3.2.3rc2 and 2.7.3rc2
  • 2012-03-04 - updated for ActiveTcl 8.5.11.1, 3.2.3rc1, 2.7.3rc1, removed 3.1.4
  • 2011-11-12 - updated for ActiveTcl 8.5.11
  • 2011-09-04 - updated for 3.2.2 final
  • 2011-07-21 - updated for macOS 10.7 and ActiveTcl 8.5.10.1
  • 2011-07-09 - updated for 3.2.1 final and ActiveTcl 8.5.10
  • 2011-06-12 - updated for 2.7.2 final and 3.1.4 final
  • 2011-05-30 - updated for 3.2.1rc, 2.7.2rc, and 3.1.4rc
  • 2011-03-08 - add warnings and include details on how Python links with Tcl/Tk releases
  • 2011-02-20 - updated for 3.2 final
  • 2011-01-31 draft 1 - preliminary info for 3.2rc2
  • 2011-01-14 draft 0
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QUESTION: I have installed ImageMagick on mycomputer but the Coyote Graphics commands can't seem to find it. What do I need to domake it available to them?

ANSWER: The Coyote Graphics routines look forImageMagick by spawning the ImageMagick convert command inside the Coyote Libraryfunction, cgHasImageMagick. If the command is not found an error is generated and cgHasImageMagick returns a 0. If no error is generated, the function returns a 1.

This means, in general, that the shell running IDL must have its PATH environmentvariable set to include the path to the ImageMagick convert command. Otherwise, ImageMagick will not be found, even if it is installed. On Windows and UNIX machines the path is typically set up properly when ImageMagickis installed. The Macintosh computer is a special case, however,and requires a different procedure.

I don't have a Macintosh computer to test on, so I am flying a little bitblind here. This is what I have been told by people who have figured out what needsto be done. If you have a better idea or explanation, I am more than happy to hear it.

Here is how I understand the problem. On most UNIX systems, a shell is spawned to start a process. The shell has its own environment variables.This apparently only happens on Macintosh computers if a programis run from the command line. If the program is run as an application (*.app), thenthe environment variables are determined by an XML file called environment.plist.

If ImageMagick is installed via MacPorts, then the convert commandlives in /opt/local/bin/. It is this directory that needs to get onthe PATH environment variable. Users have solved this problem in a couple of ways.

  • One way is to use the IDL SetEnv command in an IDL start-up file. The commandwill look like this.
  • Or, you could put a softlink to the ImageMagick convert command into thisdirectory, pointing to the actual location where the command is installed.
  • Or, you can open the the environment.plist file and look for the PATH keyand add the ImageMagick bin directory to the path you find there.
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After restarting IDL, you can test to see if your path is set propertly by running cgHasImageMagick.If it returns 1, it has found ImageMagick. It will return a 0 if ImageMagick cannot be found.

In IDL 8.x it is possible that even if you install ImageMagick correctly, you will still have trouble spawning an ImageMagick command. The solution to thisproblem can be found in this article.

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Version of IDL used to prepare this article: IDL 7.0.1.

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